TibotSkin ProblemFungal InfectionsCryptococcosis

Cryptococcosis

Cryptococcosis is caused by a fungus known as Cryptococcosis neoformans. It generally begins as a pulmonary infection and localized to the lung in 90% of patients. The infection may be spread to humans through contact with pigeon droppings or unwashed raw fruit. Contact with an infected individual may also spread the infection. Individuals with disorders characterized by lowered immunity (for instance, HIV infection) are at high risk for contracting these infections.

Cryptococcosis may appear in various forms depending on how the infection is acquired. In most cases, the infection begins in the lungs (pulmonary form) and may then spread to the brain, urinary tract, skin, and/or bones (disseminated form). When the infection is limited to the lungs, symptoms may be minimal or no apparent at all. Respiratory symptoms may include coughing and chest pain. When the infection spreads, it tends to seek out the central nervous system, especially the brain. In some affected individuals, inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord (meningitis) may occur as a serious complication. Symptoms associated with meningitis may include dizziness, blurred vision, severe headache, and/or stiffness of the neck. In such cases, immediate treatment is essential to help prevent potentially life-threatening complications.

Synonyms of Cryptococcosis:

  • Busse-Buschke Disease
  • Cryptococcic Meningitis
  • Cryptococcosis Lung
  • Cryptococcosis Skin
  • European Blastomycosis
  • Torular Meningitis
  • Torulosis

The pulmonary forms of this disease include acute infections and chronic pulmonary infections. The disseminated forms include central nervous system (brain) infections, cutaneous (skin) infections, and infections involving other organs or systems.

Pulmonary forms.

Acute infections are only rarely diagnosed except in patients with weakened immune systems. In people with normal immune systems, cryptoccosis may not result in any symptoms at all (asymptomatic).

Chronic pulmonary infections may generate rather large masses in the lobes of the lungs, as well as segmental pneumonia (involving parts of lungs), fluid in the lungs (pleural effusions), and swollen lymph nodes.

Disseminated forms

Central nervous system infections, especially of the brain, may present as only modestly severe rather than acute. Complications may include an abnormally large head (hydrocephalus) and failing sight, among others.

Cutaneous or skin infections may present as fluid-filled bumps (papules), hardened plate-like patches (plaques), and ulcerous sores.

Infections of other organs or systems may involve sight (chorioretinitis), ears (otitis), the heart (myocarditis, endocarditis), the digestive system (gastroduodenitis, hepatitis), and the kidneys.

In general, symptoms of various forms of cryptococcosis may include: chest pain, dry cough, headache, nausea, confusion, blurred or double vision, fatigue, fever, unusual and excessive sweating at night, swollen glands without the appearance of infection in nearby areas, skin rash, pinpoint red spots (petechiae), bleeding into the skin, bruises, unintentional weight loss, appetite loss, abdominal bloating, abdominal pain, abdominal swelling, weakness, bone pain, and numbness and/or tingling.

Cryptococcosis is caused by the fungus Cyptococcus neoformans. It is spread by contact with pigeon droppings, unwashed raw fruit or by infected individuals. People with immune deficiencies or lowered immunity (such as people undergoing cancer chemotherapy or organ transplants or those infected with HIV-AIDS) are at high risk for contracting this fungal infection.

Pulmonary cryptococcosis resolves without specific therapy in most immunocompetent patients. Antifungal therapy is necessary, like:

  • Pulmonary cryptococcosis in immunosuppressed hosts
  • CNS cryptococcosis
  • Disseminated nonpulmonary non-CNS cryptococcosis

Treatment for cryptococcal meningitis in patients with AIDS, like:

  • Amphotericin B deoxycholate, 0.7-1 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks, with or without
  • Flucytosine, 100 mg/kg/day in 4 divided doses for 2 weeks
  • Flucytosine speeds clearance of viable yeast from CSF but is potentially toxic, especially in patients with renal dysfunction
  • After 2 weeks, fluconazole at 400 mg/day for a minimum of 8-10 weeks

Initial therapy should be considered successful only after CSF culture is negative for cryptococcal organisms and the patient has had significant clinical improvement.

Control of CSF pressure is critical to the patient’s survival. An initial opening pressure of 250

In patients without AIDS, treatment of cryptococcal meningitis, like:

  • Amphotericin B (0.7-1 mg/kg/day) alone for 6-10 weeks or in combination with flucytosine (100 mg/kg/day in 4 divided doses) for 2 weeks, followed by fluconazole for a minimum of 10 weeks
  • Base therapy duration on CSF examination results
  • Consider weekly CSF examination until culture conversion is documented and cultures remain negative for 4 weeks
  • CSF protein abnormalities may persist for years despite successful therapy; thus, an elevated CSF protein as the only residual abnormality should not dictate prolonging therapy

Antifungal treatment for cryptococcal pulmonary disease, like:

  • Mild-to-moderate disease: Fluconazole for 6-12 months, itraconazole for 6-12 months, or amphotericin B
  • Severe disease: Amphotericin B (0.7-1 mg/kg/day) plus flucytosine (100 mg/kg/day) for 6-10 weeks, or for 2 weeks followed by fluconazole at 400 mg/kg/day for at least 10 weeks, possibly followed by further consolidation therapy for 6-12 months

When symptoms observed, need to visit a doctor to confirm the diagnosis. Sometimes, patient needs early treatment. So, early diagnosis is necessary. Besides, before start medication, patient need to consult with a doctor.

  • Andrew’s Diseases of the skin
TibotSkin ProblemFungal InfectionsCryptococcosis

Cryptococcosis

TUI - Tibot Urgency Index

Cryptococcosis is caused by a fungus known as Cryptococcosis neoformans. It generally begins as a pulmonary infection and localized to the lung in 90% of patients. The infection may be spread to humans through contact with pigeon droppings or unwashed raw fruit. Contact with an infected individual may also spread the infection. Individuals with disorders characterized by lowered immunity (for instance, HIV infection) are at high risk for contracting these infections.

Cryptococcosis may appear in various forms depending on how the infection is acquired. In most cases, the infection begins in the lungs (pulmonary form) and may then spread to the brain, urinary tract, skin, and/or bones (disseminated form). When the infection is limited to the lungs, symptoms may be minimal or no apparent at all. Respiratory symptoms may include coughing and chest pain. When the infection spreads, it tends to seek out the central nervous system, especially the brain. In some affected individuals, inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord (meningitis) may occur as a serious complication. Symptoms associated with meningitis may include dizziness, blurred vision, severe headache, and/or stiffness of the neck. In such cases, immediate treatment is essential to help prevent potentially life-threatening complications.

Synonyms of Cryptococcosis:

  • Busse-Buschke Disease
  • Cryptococcic Meningitis
  • Cryptococcosis Lung
  • Cryptococcosis Skin
  • European Blastomycosis
  • Torular Meningitis
  • Torulosis

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