Acne is a skin disease which is caused by the fluctuations of the hormones. Generally, teenagers are affected by acne but others can experience it too. In the US, it has become a very common skin problem for every aged people.
Many people tell about this problem as a breakout of acne in all forms. But all forms of acne do not always occur on the skin. It needs to identify the type of acne to treat it correctly. Generally, clogged pores are the reason to turn it into acne of the skin.
Acne is usually attributed to the following
- excess oil production
- bacterial infection
- hormonal disorder
- effects of the dead skin cells
- ingrown hair.
Acne can be divided into two types when we categorize it broadly and they are inflammatory acne and the non-inflammatory acne. The sub-types of acne within these two categories are- blackheads, whiteheads, pustules, papules, nodules, and cysts. In some cases, people can be affected by multiple types of acne at once. In this case, a quick visit to a dermatologist is a must.
Treatments for the non-inflammatory acne
The blackheads and whiteheads are the non-inflammatory acne type. These acnes do not cause any inflammation and swelling of the skin. The over-the-counter process of acne treatment acts well to treat this type of acne.
Treatment for blackheads
When a combination of the sebum and the dead skin cells clog the pores of the skin, blackheads occur from it. Though the pore is being blocked for it the top of the pores stays open. This turns it into a black colored surface on the skin.
Salicylic acid works very well for this non-inflammatory acne though this is marketed for acne, in general, for every type of acne. This medicine removes the dead skin cells by treating skin through natural exfoliation.
Treatment for the whiteheads
Whiteheads are also created by the same clogging of skin pores but the top side of the pore remain closed, not open like blackheads. Closed top of the pores made a small bump like structure on the skin.
As the top side is closed, the treatment is quite difficult because the medicine cannot get in touch with it. Salicylic acid can be helpful but the best result can be found with topical retinoids. Now, available retinoid medicine is Adapalene in the market. If the condition becomes serious or the effect of Adapalene is less, then strong retinoid may be required and it should be taken by consulting a dermatologist.
Treatments for the inflammatory acne
Inflammatory acne are pimples with swelling, bacterial infections, papules, pustules, cysts, and nodules.
Treatment for pimples and bacterial infections
Pimples, dead skin cells and bacterial infections are inflammatory acne. Pimples are the red-swollen inflammation and can cause slight irritation and itchy feelings. Bacteria can also make pore clogging and deep infection under the skin or clogged pores of the skin. This can be a serious and painful infection. Bacterial infection is hard to treat.
Medicines or products which contains benzoyl- peroxides, will help to remove or reduce this inflammation from the skin. This can destroy bacteria too. Before using this, consulting a dermatologist is necessary because they will generally prescribe antibiotics with this medicine.
Treatment for the papules
A severe inflammation causes the papules when the surrounding walls get to break down. Several hard and clogged pores are seen which turn to red or pink color. This papule makes irritation on the skin.
This inflammatory papule can be treated by Retinoids effectively.
Treatment for Pustules
Pustules are also developed after breaking of the wall of the pores. It creates pus filling the pustule pores. A bump like structure is seen where a pustule is formed on the skin and these bumps are red or yellow in color. Sometimes, yellow heads or the whiteheads are formed over the pustules.
Retinoids can be used for the pustule treatment too.
Treatment for Nodules
When the clogged and the swollen pores become large causing irritation, they turn to nodule formation. These nodules are formed deep under the skin. They are deeper than pustules or papules.
The treatment is not as easy as the treatment of papules or pustules because of the deep formation under the skin. Patients need to visit a dermatologist to get medicines. They will prescribe the oral medicines like Isotretinoin. This medicine is a vitamin A containing medicine which is needed to take for 4 to 6 months on a daily basis. This medicine will remove nodules by preventing and reducing the oil gland within the pores.
Treatment for Cysts
When bacteria functions on dead skin cells and sebum, cysts are formed. These are formed to the deepest area under the skin than any other inflammatory acne. These cysts look like large white and red bump like formation that can be painful on touching. This is the largest formation of acne and it can be serious and can leave a scar. It is caused by the severe infection under the skin. So, these type of acne should be treated as soon as possible.
At first, a dermatologist can prescribe the Isotretinoin before it gets to the severe stage. If it has already got to the severe stage it may need to remove surgically.
As the treatments take some time to show the effect, so people have to be patient enough to treat them. Medicines should not be interrupted. Regular maintenance of medicines will make the result and treat completely.